Dei'ah veDibur - Information & Insight

A Window into the Chareidi World

11 Tishrei 5767 - October 3, 2006 | Mordecai Plaut, director Published Weekly








Elementary chareidi education is now almost a quarter of the entire Israeli elementary educational system!
Chareidi Education in Eretz Yisroel in 5767: Facts and Figures
Chareidi Education on the Increase, Kein Yirbu

by Betzalel Kahn

A recent study showed that the elementary chareidi school system in Eretz Yisroel accounts for approximately a quarter of the students entire Israeli elementary school system. This trend is on the increase to such an extent that natural demographic development will, within a few short years, result in chareidi pupils forming the clear majority. Some people believe that this is the reason for the harassment by the Education Ministry and other bodies, who try to interfere with the curricula in chareidi schools and to give them a bad name.

The research paper, written by Nochum Balas and Yigal Duchan from The Taub Center for Social Policy Studies in Israel, studies the movement of pupils from one educational system to another. For example, every year some 1,700 children change to the secular system (mamlachti) from the government- religious system (mamlachti dati) — in other words, they remove their yarmulke. However, about 1,300 children move in the opposite direction, changing from the secular system to the government- religious, leaving the secular system with a net gain of 400 pupils. Overall, the study reveals that approximately 12 percent of sixth graders, or around 4,000 pupils from the government-religious sector, have left the system in the last two years in favor of the secular system.

While the usual excuse for the Education Ministry's attempts to meddle in the chareidi education system is the transfer of non-religious children to Chinuch Atzmai schools, it can be seen, at least according to the Taub Center study, that this is simply not true. The study shows that the number of pupils leaving the government systems for the chareidi one is extremely small.

It seems rather that those in charge of secular education in Eretz Yisroel are losing sleep over the natural increase in the number of pupils in the chareidi system. They now comprise, ka"h, a full quarter of the country's entire elementary school population. "The rise in the proportion of chareidi education within the general education system has occurred due to the different demographic increase in each sector and not to the transfer between the various streams in the education system," note the authors of the study.

Jerusalem Numbers Continue to Rise

We set out to investigate the rise in the number of chareidi pupils in the major chareidi areas. The figures show an impressive increase across all of Eretz Yisroel.

We began in Jerusalem, where the numbers in chareidi education continue to rise. The municipal statistics show that chareidi pupils comprise 43.6 percent of the total number this year. 30.8 percent of the pupils were in the state system, and 25.5 percent were Arab pupils. This is significantly higher than last year when "only" 39 percent of the total number of pupils was chareidi.

These statistics continue the striking growth pattern in the chareidi education system over the last five years, which has reached approximately 15 percent per year! Indeed, this rise comes at a time when the state Jewish system dropped by 870 pupils, or 1.3 percent.

The official figures show that 86,612 pupils are enrolled in chareidi educational institutions in Jerusalem for the 5767 school year, a 2.2 percent increase over 5766. The government- religious and secular streams total 61,317 pupils, and the Arab stream has 50,715 pupils. All in all a total of 198,644 pupils.

The municipal Department for Chareidi Education says that it has opened fifteen new preschools in addition to the 653 existing ones; as well as another six first-grade classes joining the 74 existing classes. Pupils under the Department for Chareidi Education study in 1,012 educational institutions in 3,338 classes with an average of 27 pupils per class. The Chareidi Educational Department spent close to NIS 20 million on renovations and redecoration of school and preschool buildings.

A few more statistics: The most popular boys' name this year among chareidi pupils is Dovid, closely followed by Yehuda and Yosef. Among the girls Soroh leads, followed by Rivka and Esther. The areas with the largest number of first- graders are Ramat Shlomo, Neveh Yaakov, and Ramot Dalet.

Free School Books

The Department for Chareidi Education adds that tens of thousands of schoolbooks were distributed to chareidi pupils by the municipality together with the Salsala Organization. The books, most of which were new, as well as some used ones which were rebound by volunteers, were lent out to the pupils on the proviso that they would be returned to the school secretary at the end of the year for the use of other pupils in the future. In addition hundreds of reference books were provided in order to form class libraries, relieving the pupils of the need to carry heavy books to school.

The Salsala Project was established to ease the burden of large families by reducing the substantial expense incurred in purchasing brand new school books. Parents who enrolled their children in the project paid a token price of between two and five shekels per book. Mayor Rabbi Uri Lupoliansky said that he sees running the project as an issue of great importance and added that he would act to also involve various bodies from outside the municipality.

He told us, "There are families with eight, ten or even more children who do not have the means to buy dozens of schoolbooks every year for each child. We have to do our utmost to ensure that these families will be able to provide their children with the best possible education."

Within the framework of the project, the originators also negotiate with the various publishing companies to order wholesale quantities of basic texts and workbooks, with the aim of substantially reducing the prices, and also bringing about the production of books which are made to last. The project is also active within the school curriculum to instill pupils' awareness of the importance of taking care of schoolbooks. Those who started the project also show concern for the children's health. Heavy books, including Sefer HaTodo'oh (The Book of our Heritage) and atlases, are made available to the pupils in their classroom, sparing them from carrying heavy books on their backs to school each day.

The Salsala Project is under the sponsorship of the Jerusalem Municipal Department for Chareidi Education, headed by Rabbi Binyomin Cohen, for the second consecutive year. Last year the project was launched as a pilot scheme in Neveh Yaakov and this year other Neveh Yaakov institutions together with institutions in Ramot, the Bukharian district, and the city center have joined in. These schools were chosen due to being identified as having special needs as well as due to the willingness of their principals to take part. The project is expected to expand to other areas next year and to benefit thousands of additional pupils.

Bnei Brak: Millions for Renovations

Bnei Brak's schools, preschools and educational institutions are attended by a total 54,750 children this year, 950 more than last year's 53,800. There are 26,150 pupils in 86 educational institutions in elementary education; 14,150 in 27 Chinuch Atzmai and Maayan Hachinuch schools; 11,000 in 46 public and private talmudei Torah; 900 in four government-religious schools and 360 in the city's one secular elementary school.

There are 16,000 students enrolled in high-school-age institutions: 8,000 in yeshivos ketanos; 6,079 girls in thirteen chareidi high schools and seminaries; 1,500 pupils in four government-religious schools and 421 students in the city's one secular government high school.

Of the 4,814 preschoolers, 4,332 are enrolled in chareidi preschools, an increase of 380 children; 402 in government- religious and 80 in secular preschool. Six new preschool classes were opened, solving the problems of those pre- schools which were in trailers last year. In addition five new first-grade classes opened in Bais Yaakov schools in the city.

The Municipality, with the approval of the Education Ministry, carried out improvements to the infrastructure in seven schools, at a cost of NIS 1,477,500. Furniture for the new classrooms cost approximately NIS 900,000. General improvements were made at a number of seminaries for a total cost of NIS 4,020,000.

The Ateres Rochel Seminary moved from rented facilities into its new premises on the Elitzur plot. A new Koter Payis building was built at the Meir high-school seminary on Aharonowitz Street. The first stage of the work to provide a building for the Vishnitz Seminary is in process. Up until now all 574 girls have been forced to study in rented rooms. A new wing is also being built at the Pnei Menachem Talmud Torah.

Mayor Rabbi Yissochor Frankenthal expressed his pleasure at the extensive building of classrooms taking place at various city locations, carried out with the cooperation of Rabbi Yissochor Dov Beigel and Mr. Yaakov Soler, City Council members and heads of the Education Department as well as Rabbi Yonoson Safra, the Education Department director.

At the Mayor's initiative, the City Council approved more than NIS 10 million to prepare for the current school year. The preparations included renovations outside and inside, fixing safety hazards, equipping 34 educational institutions, additional classrooms, air-conditioning in special education classes, replacing damaged playground equipment and infrastructure development in the new day-care center on HaRav Brodt Street.

Ashdod: 30 Percent Chareidim

Around 30 percent of the pupils enrolled in the city's education system are in chareidi education. The chareidi institutions have some 16,000 pupils, with approximately 35,000 in all the other streams.

Over 11,000 pupils consisting of around 400 classes attend dozens of talmudei Torah and Bais Yaakov schools. About 5,000 children are enrolled in some 200 preschool classes. Ashdod also has a Shuvu school with an enrollment of approximately 350 pupils. Hundreds of girls study in the three seminaries in the city and around 2,000 bochurim learn in over ten yeshivos.

The Municipality, together with the principals of the institutions, made thorough preparations for the new school year, solving many problems that were caused by lack of sufficient classrooms.

Modi'in Illit: 16,000 Pupils

Around 16,000 pupils, 2,000 more than last year, are being educated in 600 classes in Modi'in Illit. Around 450 of the classes are held in permanent buildings.

The 2,000 new pupils form another hundred classes in the city's huge educational system. Around 5,500 children attend some 200 preschool classes. Modi'in Illit boasts 31 talmudei Torah, eight Bais Yaakov elementary schools, nine yeshivos ketanos and eight yeshivos gedolos. The local council assisted in the establishment of three new yeshivos gedolos and in finding solutions so that learning could take place in all the yeshivos. A total of 1,000 girls are enrolled in the two high schools and the seminary. All the girls' schools, with one exception, are housed in permanent buildings.

Two talmudei Torah, Derech Emes in Kiryat Sefer and Pri HaTorah in Achuzas Brachfeld, moved into permanent premises at the beginning of the school year. Dozens of school buildings have been constructed in recent years with funding from the Education Ministry and Mifal Hapayis.

During the summer vacation improvements were carried out in hundreds of classrooms, under the direction of Rabbi Yaakov Guterman, head of the local council, and Rabbi Nachman Benshaya, the educational representative. Security devices were improved, and solutions were sought for each educational institution, including 100 new classes which opened as part of the rapidly expanding educational system.

An innovation this year is the provision of hot-lunches to all the elementary school pupils, together with those from Beitar Illit, within the framework of the government program. The program is part of the plan to institute the Long School Day Law in both cities in the future.

However, there has recently been a hue and cry in the Knesset Education Committee, after it came to light that the Education Minister had no intention of approving the long school day in Modi'in Illit and Beitar Illit. This came after a letter by the Treasury, signed by Raviv Sobel, the Treasury representative, assuring that he had already approved the step. The Education Minister opposed the idea and the vote was postponed. Rabbi Guterman had received the letter and even appeared before the committee, protesting the fact that the two cities had not been included in the program.

"In a conversation I had with Tamir, the Education Minister, later on, she tried to find a way out of the conflict and promised to find a creative solution which would include these cities in the long school day framework this year. Meanwhile she approved the hot-lunch program as an independent stage. This agreement resulted eventually in approval for the long school day program. We are now waiting for the hot-lunch program to be implemented in the two chareidi cities as has been approved by the Treasury," said Rabbi Guterman.

Beitar Illit: 6,000 preschoolers

The new school year began with a surge of building to provide classrooms for the various educational institutions. There has been an increase of 1,600 pupils over last year, making a total of 14,600 pupils in around 500 permanent classrooms. Around 1,760 children attend nursery school for the first time, while there are about 1,400 first-graders. Altogether some 6,000 children are enrolled in 130 preschool classes, forming about one half of the municipal education system.

The city's Education Department reported that more than 400 new classrooms have been built in the last four and a half years, with the building of another 60 already underway. This year only four preschool classes are situated in rented apartments, compared to 126 in purpose-built classrooms.

The new Machon Beis Yaakov Lemoros Beitar Illit teachers' seminary which was founded with the blessings and encouragement of Maran HaRav Yosef Sholom Eliashiv shlita, has an enrollment of nearly one hundred girls in three classes. The rapid growth of the city, now with a population of 35,000, together with the rise in the number of local girls graduating the Bais Yaakov elementary schools created a need for such a seminary. Until this year the girls had been forced to travel to seminaries in Jerusalem.

The Director of the Education Department Rabbi Yisroel Tick, the Municipal Secretary Rabbi Betzalel Yaakobson together with senior municipal staff, department workers and City Council member with responsibility for education Rabbi Yaakov Weingarten, under the direction of Mayor Rabbi Yitzchok Pindrus worked throughout the summer on preparations for the new school year. Extra maintenance workers were employed to ensure a trouble-free start to the year.

The Education Department expects hundreds more pupils to enroll in the city's preschools, schools and talmudei Torah throughout the school year. This is due to the expected arrival of the new residents of 600 new apartments within the next few months.

This year sees an innovation in Beitar Illit's education system. Mayor Rabbi Yitzchok Pindrus, who also serves as head of the Forum of Chareidi and Religious Municipal Authorities in Israel, reached a final agreement with Education Minister Yuli Tamir that the Prime Minister's office and the Education Ministry will fund the hot-lunch program in Beitar Illit and Modi'in Illit together with the Sacta-Rashi Foundation. In this way these children will be provided with a hot, nutritious lunch as are other eligible children in the Israeli education system. This is an important achievement in the wake of a prolonged battle which included appeals to the High Court.

Beit Shemesh: The Majority in Chareidi Education

In Beit Shemesh the problems in many educational institutions were solved, with city council member Rabbi Moshe Montag who is in charge of chareidi education and also school principals and municipal workers, working right up until the beginning of the school year. The vast majority of pupils in the chareidi system study in purpose-built classrooms with a minority in temporary structures and trailers.

The city's education system registered an increase of around 2,000 new pupils, most of which are in the chareidi stream, making a total of 23,800. Approximately 13,000 of them, 54.6 percent of the total number, are in the chareidi stream as against 10,800, or 45.4 percent, in the government streams. This figure does not include some 2,000 pupils in the mosdos of the Old Yishuv, which do not feature in the municipal statistics.

The chareidi pupils study in some 30 educational institutions which include around 400 classes, the majority, as mentioned, in standard buildings and a few in caravans. Dozens of preschool classrooms are located throughout the city. In addition some 300 city residents study in yeshivos ketanos with a similar number of girls in the local seminaries.

Elad: 20 percent Growth

Around 9,300 pupils are in Elad; 4,700 children in 190 pre- school classes and 4,600 pupils in the 178 talmudei Torah and girls' schools' classes.

This year an additional 40 preschool classrooms and 45 school and talmud Torah classrooms were finished, an increase of more than 20 percent on last year. The Education Ministry delivered some 85 trailers from their general reserves of 100. The construction of two schools continues with funding by Mifal Hapayis, with the pupils expected to occupy them this year.

There are 1,220 first-graders. The largest school in the town is the Bais Yaakov, with 820 pupils, while the Kehillos Yaakov Talmud Torah has 470. The Eitz Hada'as and Agudas Yisroel's preschool networks each have an enrollment of 500, and there are dozens of other educational institutions throughout the city. There are also two yeshivos in Elad; Knesses Yisroel with 220 bochurim and Chevron yeshiva ketanoh with 100.

Rabbi Tzvi Herbst, deputy head of the city council and city council member with responsibility for education worked, together with Rabbi Avigdor Katzburg and members of the education department, to prepare for the new school year. The local council invested large sums of money in renovating existing institutions, and providing additional classrooms.

Petach Tikva: Increasing Chareidi Education

In Petach Tikva there are 41,000 pupils in the education system, 9,800 of which — close to 25 percent — are in the chareidi system.

1,250 pupils attend Chinuch Atzmai elementary schools; 2,310 are in talmudei Torah and chareidi schools; 2,750 are in preschool; another 780 pupils in the Shuvu preschools and high school; 310 pupils in the Nesivos Moshe School; 1,250 pupils in the yeshivos ketanos and 1,150 girls in the high school and seminary. In total the municipal chareidi education network comprises 9,800 pupils, ken yirbu. The 3,000 children enrolled in the preschools, are around 40 percent of the total preschool enrollment in the city.

Rabbi Menachem Shwartz, head of the Department for Chareidi Education and Jewish Culture in the municipality, noted that the religious education system now is 13 percent of the education system in the city. Together with the chareidi education they number 48 percent of Petach Tikva's children. Around 3,000 of the children in chareidi education are in kiruv institutions, a direct consequence of the Torah educational activities which take place in the city, under the auspices of the Municipal Department for Chareidi Education and Jewish Culture which has been active for the last sixteen years. Then there were 2,500 pupils in chareidi education which has risen to 9,800 today, ken yirbu.

Rechasim: Chareidi Education a Clear Majority

Within the Rechasim Local Council in the north of the country there are approximately 2,600 pupils in many institutions. There are 800 children in 30 preschools. Another 800 girls attend the three girls' elementary schools; Bais Yaakov, Ohel Soroh and Bas Melech. Around 1,000 boys attend the four talmudei Torah; Tashbar Horav, Darchei Torah, Toras Chaim and Yakirei Rechasim. There is one government-religious school, with just 80 children.

Rechasim has four yeshivos ketanos: Knesses Chizkiyohu, Yeshivas Rechasim, Ma'oz Yehudi and Oholei Shmuel as well as three yeshivos gedolos: Knesses Chizkiyohu, Be'er Yitzchok and Ma'oz Chaim. Hundreds of girls study at the girls' high-school and the Shiras Miriam Seminary, a branch of the Ofakim Seminary, at the Midrashia for girls and women, and other places.

At the Ohr Chodosh Educational Center hundreds of girls from across the country study and live in the dormitories, while being strengthened in Torah and yiras Shomayim. The Tzohar LeTohar special-education facility provides for pupils from preschool and includes separate hostels for teenage boys and girls where they learn coping skills and are able to be integrated into the wider community, and find employment.

The Head of the Local Council, Rabbi Yitzchok Reich explained that some of the preschools and schools are situated in older buildings and trailers in difficult conditions. A number of modern schools and preschools have been built recently such as the Tashbar Horav Talmud Torah which has 24 spacious, new classrooms. The Darchei Torah Talmud Torah also has a beautiful building with a large yard.

Haifa: Renovations at the Last Minute

Around 2,300 pupils are registered in ten educational institutions for boys and girls in Haifa, in more than 100 classes. There has been a rise of some ten percent in the number of chareidi pupils in the city. In the preschools there are some 800 children, with an impressive growth in numbers.

The majority of Haifa's classrooms in chareidi educational institutions are in well-maintained buildings, although some institutions still suffer from overcrowding. Some have been promised better buildings by the municipality, but plans have not moved forward at the Education Ministry.

The Municipality was only able to organize renovations at the very last minute, just before the start of the new school year, as throughout the municipal education framework. The recent war prevented the municipal workers from carrying out the necessary renovations. However efforts were made to finish the maximum possible number of improvements and repairs. Outstanding repairs will be carried out during the yom tov vacations.

Haifa has a number of yeshivos gedolos and yeshivos ketanos with a total of over 800 bochurim learning there.

Kiryat Yearim: 750 Yeshiva Bochurim

The community of Kiryat Yearim (Telshe Stone) has close to 1,600 pupils in preschool, talmudei Torah, the Beis Yaakov school and yeshivos ketanos and gedolos.

Around 250 children are in nine preschool classes. 800 pupils attend the two talmudei Torah and Bais Yaakov school in 34 classes, and around 220 girls travel to study at seminaries in Jerusalem. Apart from private nurseries there are 65 children in day-care in private homes. Council Head Rabbi Avrohom Rosenthal hopes that a beautiful day-care center will be completed by next year.

There are also two yeshivos ketanos in Telshe Stone with an enrollment of around 200; Meor Eliyahu and Belz. Four yeshivos gedolos have around 550 bochurim.

Pupils of all ages benefit from extracurricular activities in the afternoon and evening. There is a play room for toddlers, a masmidim learning program for boys of all grades from 4 p.m. until 9 p.m., various activities and clubs for the girls, a tape library where the children can also sit and listen to the cassettes, a game room and many other social activities.

Large sums of money were invested in renovating educational institutions. The number of preschool classrooms rose.

Emanuel: New Seminary

In the Samarian city of Emanuel there are some 1,500 pupils in the education system. Around 350 of them are in twelve preschool classes. There is also a central day-care facility serving 100 babies and toddlers as well as twelve day-cares in private homes throughout the city.

Other children study in three talmudei Torah and two girls' elementary schools. Two of the talmudei Torah are still situated in caravans and Council Head Rabbi Yeshayohu Ehrenreich is still working to build them classrooms.

This year saw the opening of Year Five and Six in the girls' seminary, so high school girls will not have to travel. A child development center, Derech Maftei'ach, will open up as a branch of the Tel Hashomer Hospital.

Preparations are also underway for the opening of a new yeshiva ketanoh in the near future.

Jewish Education System Distribution

Education Stream Number of Pupils Percentage of Pupils
Secular 584,926 55.5
Government-Religious 173,270 16.4
Chinuch Atzmai, Maayan Hachinuch, other recognized schools 254,383 24.2
Talmudei Torah 40,622 3.9
Total 1,053,201 100


Discrimination Against Disabled Children Too

A strike at the beginning of the school year in hundreds of Jerusalem preschools due to unceasing harassment by legal bodies in the Municipality, was narrowly averted. Those who are familiar with the details know well who is responsible for the aggravation and what motives he has. However there is little hope for a change as long as he remains in his position in the Municipality, supported by the courts.

Recently a further case of discrimination against children in chareidi education has come to light, and more specifically against disabled children in the chareidi system. Israeli law determines that a physically- disadvantaged child, who in most cases needs a wheelchair, should be integrated into the regular school system. This is known as equal opportunities in education. There are various forums and organizations which deal with this issue and, in the majority of cases, are able to integrate the pupils in regular educational institutions. This is dependent on the existence of suitable conditions which enable the pupil to reach the classroom, and other vital services needed by the disabled child, including bathrooms which have been suitably adapted. Legally this is known as "accessibility for the disabled."

People turned to the Hebrew Yated Ne'eman concerning disabled children, both boys and girls, who had expected to attend chareidi educational institutions in Jerusalem. The school administration announced that they were unable to make the necessary improvements for accessibility for the disabled. It is not always feasible for the administration to change the location of classes or to provide bathrooms for the disabled, at the expense of other priorities. The classrooms are sometimes located on upper floors, meaning that with the lack of an elevator or special stair-lift, the disabled child is forced to stay at home and not receive an education.

Educational institutions which approached the Municipality with requests to carry out improvements to provide accessibility for the disabled were flabbergasted to be told that the Municipality would not finance the work which would allow chareidi children to study in a regular school. The reason given is that the city's legal advisor has determined that the Municipality is not obligated to fund accessibility for the disabled in non-municipal institutions.

It has been subtly hinted that this behavior is considered exceptionally strange. The highest legal bodies in the municipality, who try to constantly harass the chareidi educational system, have chosen unfortunate disabled children who want to integrate with their peers in school, to fight with. Isn't it the state itself which decided, through the law to finance disabled accessibility to children in the various educational streams, that the local authorities would pay for the work needed in the educational institutions? The improvements done in non-municipal institutions are carried out for the child's sake, just as they are elsewhere.

Municipal spokesman Gidi Shmerling responded, "The Municipality, in cooperation with the Bituach Leumi, provides for disabled accessibility in all Municipal institutions. However, due to the opinion of the Legal Department, the Municipality is incapable of carrying out similar work in non- municipal institutions. Those involved with education in the Municipality are working together with the Legal Department to formulate a solution which will allow such improvements in those institutions too."

Unfortunately, until the problem is resolved and the legal inflexibility will end, the disabled children will continue to suffer.

Planting the Eitz Hada'as in Jerusalem Neighborhoods

The preschool network for avreichim, Eitz Hada'as, has fulfilled its aims for the current school year of laying an educational infrastructure and preparing educational centers in the old Jerusalem neighborhoods which are becoming more chareidi.

It is no secret that many city neighborhoods are gradually changing and large numbers of avreichim are making their homes there. Therefore the educational Eitz Hada'as network decided to make it a priority to build educational centers for the community that operate according to the derech of our gedolim.

Significant expansion has taken place in Kiryat Yovel. The network has opened several nursery schools with a registration of thirty toddlers, kein yirbu. In Ramot Bet a center for preschoolers was set up for dozens of children in addition to the boys' preschool which has been in operation since last year. In nearby Ramot Alef, educational and community centers are open for the second year running and, apart from boys' and girls' preschools, an after school- child-care facility has opened to working mothers.

In Ramat Eshkol there are seven preschools with around 200 children, kein yirbu. Another fast-growing neighborhood is on the Sharei Tzedek hillside, where a preschool is active and helping its consolidation as a unique frum neighborhood. The Rochashei Leiv Project for special education children has been expanded this year after the achievement, with incredible siyata deShmaya, that 90 percent of their pupils were able to return to the regular education system, an accomplishment which aroused excitement among professionals in the field.

A particular success is the neighborhood of Neveh Yaakov in north Jerusalem which has a flourishing Torah community and where Eitz Hada'as has around a hundred pupils of various ages, kein yirbu. Both here and in Ramot Alef anti- religious groups attempted to interfere with the success of Torah growth. However, with much siyata deShmaya and cooperation on the part of neighborhood avreichim their endeavors failed.

The director of the Eitz Hada'as network, Rabbi Avrohom Maklev, expressed his delight at this growth. "This is our hakoras hatov to the gedolim who relied on us to found a national educational organization based on the chinuch which we observed and learned from our rabbonim," said Rabbi Maklev.


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